34 | The role of web technologies in QA

Published on Aug 19, 2021 | By Tesvan team



WWW (Word Wide Web) - World Wide Web, which is also known as a Web, is a collection of websites or web pages stored in web servers and connected to local computers through the internet. These websites contain text pages, digital images, audios, videos, etc. Users can access the content of these sites from any part of the world over the internet using their devices such as computers, laptops, cell phones, etc. The WWW, along with internet, enables the retrieval and display of text and media to your device.

URI (Uniform Resource Identifier) -A URI is a string containing characters that identify a physical or logical resource. URI follows syntax rules to ensure uniformity. Moreover, it also maintains extensibility via a hierarchical naming scheme. The full form of URI is Uniform Resource Identifier.

URN (Uniform Resource Name) -  Uniform Resource Name (URN) is an internet resource that specifies URN scheme.

URL (Uniform Resource Locator) – A URL is a global address of documents and protocols to retrieve resource on a computer network. URLs occur most frequently in reference to web pages (HTTP) but can also be used for database access using JDBC, email (mailto), file transfer (FTP), and many other applications. URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator.

Web Browser – "A web browser, or simply 'browser,' is an application used to access and view websites.

Web Server - A web server is a computer that runs websites. It's a computer program that distributes web pages as they are requisitioned. The basic objective of the web server is to store, process and deliver web pages to the users. This intercommunication is done using Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).

Web Page – A document which can be displayed in a web browser such as Firefox, Google Chrome, Opera, Microsoft Internet Explorer or Edge, or Apple's Safari. These are also often called just "pages." website. A collection of web pages which are grouped together and usually connected together in various ways. 

Web Site –  a group of World Wide Web pages usually containing hyperlinks to each other and made available online by an individual, company, educational institution, government, or organization

The client side is visible to the user, but the server side is not.



Below are the 4 main protocols:

  1. IP (Internet Protocol)
  2. FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
  3. HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)
  4. HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure)


Cash - A temporary storage area in memory or on disk that holds the most recently downloaded Web pages. As you jump from Web page to Web page, caching those pages in memory lets you quickly go back to a page without having to download it from the Web again. 

Cookie - Cookies are text files with small pieces of data — like a username and password — that are used to identify your computer as you use a computer network. Specific cookies known as HTTP cookies are used to identify specific users and improve your web browsing experience.

Authentication - Authentication is the act of validating that users are whom they claim to be. This is the first step in any security process. 

Giving someone permission to download a particular file on a server or providing individual users with administrative access to an application are good examples of authentication.

Authorization - Authorization in a system security is the process of giving the user permission to access a specific resource or function. This term is often used interchangeably with access control or client privilege.

In secure environments, authorization must always follow authentication. Users should first prove that their identities are genuine before an organization’s administrators grant them access to the requested resources.


HTTP(S) Methods

HTTP VerbCRUDEntire Collection
(e.g. /customers)
Specific Item
(e.g. /customers/{id})
POSTCreate201 (Created), 'Location' header with link to /customers/{id} containing new ID.404 (Not Found), 409 (Conflict) if resource already exists..
GETRead200 (OK), list of customers. Use pagination, sorting and filtering to navigate big lists.200 (OK), single customer. 404 (Not Found), if ID not found or invalid.
PUTUpdate/Replace405 (Method Not Allowed), unless you want to update/replace every resource in the entire collection.200 (OK) or 204 (No Content). 404 (Not Found), if ID not found or invalid.
PATCHUpdate/Modify405 (Method Not Allowed), unless you want to modify the collection itself.200 (OK) or 204 (No Content). 404 (Not Found), if ID not found or invalid.
DELETEDelete405 (Method Not Allowed), unless you want to delete the whole collection—not often desirable.200 (OK). 404 (Not Found), if ID not found or invalid.



Useful links
1. HTTP Basics article/eng/
2. HTTP methods article/rus/
3. HTTP and WEB video tutorial/eng/
4. HTTP video tutorial/rus/
5. HTTP response video tutorial/arm/

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